Blog award: The real neat blog award

real-neat-blog-award

Hurray I was nominated on award of neat blog! Dont know how it happened but anyway thank you Abyssbrain https://mathemagicalsite.wordpress.com/

Here are rules for this award:

1) Put the award logo on your blog.

2) Answer 7 questions asked by the person who nominated you.

3) Thank the people who nominated you, linking to their blogs.

4) Nominate any number of bloggers you like, linking to their blogs.

5) Let them know you nominated them (by commenting on their blog etc.)

Well those were the questions so I will answer them:

1. What do you normally watch on Youtube?

Well I am usually wathing some science videos from channels like VSauce, Veritasium, SciShow, MinutePhysics or I am listening to music: Two Steps From Hell is my favourite band.

2. Doesn’t “expecting the unexpected” make the unexpected expected?

Interesting question! But I think not because there are various things that can happen and if you dont know what will happen you can hardly prepare for everything. You should expect that something really bad happens like insanely bad so when it does not happen which is high probability, you will be happily suprised and when it does happen you partially expected it.

3. What is the funniest book that you have read?

I dont know what is its name but it is drawed like comics and it about bunnies. On every page something awful happens to them, and they usually die bad it is that funny that you have to wait half a minute before you turn another page.

4. Do you think that the universe is infinite or not?

No I dont think that. I like Stephen´s Hawking theory of expanding and collapsing universe.

5. What motivates you to improve yourself?

Usually me because I want to learn stuff while I am young and before I have too much things to do. Or sometimes some friends or mum.

6. When did you last jog or run?

I am usually running every monday because of my after school activity: athletics. I am not really good but I like running.

7. If you could have any animal as a pet, which would you choose?

I would choose probably hamster because you dont need to go out with him and he does not take much time. AND HAMSTERS ARE CUTE!

Well now i will nominate some guys:

https://starguyblog.wordpress.com/

https://mathblogger101.wordpress.com/

http://dailyinspirationblog.com/

Now here are questions:

1. How would you like to die? How would it look like around you?

2. Would you go to the universe (ISS) if you had that chance?

3. What would you pay for knowing?

4. Does your blog now looks like that one you imagined when you created it?

5. What are your ambitions in the future?

6. How long do you think that humans will survive?

7. What would you do with potion of immortality? (only for one person)

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4) Four fundamental forces: Weak interaction

Hi guys!
We are nearly finishing posts for fundamental forces. First I would like to apologize that I forgot to mention that force carrier for Electromagnetism is photon.

So weak interaction is pretty weak but still insanely stronger than gravitation. It works with quarks and their flavors and it is responsible for decay.
https://i0.wp.com/images.tutorvista.com/cms/images/83/quarks1.PNGHere on left is picture of all six possible flavors of quarks. (There can also be antiflavors). Most of matter in universe is made up by up and down quarks. For example neutrons and protons.
Force carrier for weak interaction is w+ boson w- boson or z0 boson.

I was talking about decay so I will show you how beta decay is made by weak interaction.

There is proton with two up quarks and one down quark. It wants to change to neutron because that particle in which this proton is is not stable.
Quark structure proton.svgWhen proton touches neutrino which is carrying w+ boson, boson will move to proton and change one up quark to down quark which makes up neutron. Neutrino will lose positive charge of boson which means it will turn to electron which makes up beta decay!Quark structure neutron.svg

For summary I would say that weak interaction is responsible for changing of quarks flavor which is many atributes of quarks.

Well that was quite short but that is probably all.
Dragallur
PS. here are links to previous episodes of four fundamental forces:
https://dragallur.wordpress.com/2015/03/20/1-four-fundamental-forces-prologue/
https://dragallur.wordpress.com/2015/03/21/2-four-fundamental-forces-gravitation/
https://dragallur.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/3-four-fundamental-forces-electromagnetism/

Crazy large numbers

Hi!
Two or three days ago I learned something about large numbers.
I will talk about numbers small, large and extremely huge numbers.

First of all, small numbers are those which we use in normal live. Every day you use them in your math class or if you want to calculate how much money you spent.
For those numbers you dont need any special way to write them they are quite easy.
One Ten Thousand Million Billion Trillion Quadrillion
That is why in which some states write numbers, it is called short scale because in czech we have:
One Ten Thousand Million Milliard Billion Billiard…. (thats translated)
That is called long scale because there are those “illiards”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_large_numbers
Here you can find list of numbers and their names.

Large numbers start to create some problems. If you clicked on the link I posted you probably found that after quintillions you are lost and you dont know how the hell you should remember that.
There is system to write numbers like Unvigintillion. That is ten and sixty six zeros. You probably know this because it is used pretty often: 10^66. I wont explain this for people who dont undestand it because it would be even more boring post than it is now.

At one point this is too small and even if you start to create “towers” of exponents it will look like this: 10^10^10^651682138 which is pretty nasty.
(Btw. e+x means that there is some number of numbers after that number, for example: 153,20e+2 = 153,20
25e+16 = 250 000 000 000 000 000)
So what people created are called Knuth´s up-arrows and they look like this: ↑ (alt+24).
So I will do few examples so you know how it works:
2↑2 = 2^2 = 4
4↑3 = 4^3 = 64
5↑2 = 5^2 = 25
Now you dont get it yet but it gets awesome when i add up one arrow: ↑↑
(I will just remind you that when you have more exponents on more exponents you have to go from right)
2↑↑2 = 2^2^2 = 16
4↑↑3 = 4↑4^4^4 = 4↑256 = 1.34e+154
5↑↑2 = 5^5^5 = 2.9802322e+17
So it means that second number tells us how many times first number will be there
It gets totally crazy with third arrow: ↑↑↑
2↑↑↑2 = 2↑↑2^2 = 2↑↑4 = 2↑2^2^2^2 = 2↑65536 = 2^2^2^2^2^2^2…. 65536 times
4↑↑↑3 = 4↑↑4^4^4 = 4↑↑1.34e+154 = well I hope you get that idea because now it gets like so crazy that I wont continue but if you want to see some other examples go here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knuth%27s_up-arrow_notation

Well thats about all hope you get it, if not then ask me below
Dragallur

3) Four fundamental forces: Electromagnetism

Hi guys,
today I will return to electromagnetism as second fundamental force.
It is made up two forces which we are thinking like extremely different ones.

First I will talk about electro static force.
Well, It is quite easy. When you have two objects and one wants to give electron while the other would like to take some electrons and you will make them touch each other electrons will be jumping there creating one object negatively charged and second one positively charged. (F.g. when you pull your christmas sweather on you, in dark you can probably see little lightings and feel those small shocks.) It is the same wiith battery, one side wants to have electrons so when it is charged it does not have them while second one has lot of electrons but it doesn´t need them so through some wire this difference will be slowly going to equalize by flow of electrons.

Magnetism also works with electrons and that is why these forces could be connected to electromagnetism. Magnet is made up by some special material in which atoms are turning by their pluses and minuses. So in every magnet there are millions of magnets. It does not matter if you make it smaller there will always appear new south and north pole which is made by this turning of atoms.
+  -+  –
+  –
+  –
+  –
Here on right would be south pole (+) and on left would be north pole. It it would be really light (not heavy) and it could easily turn it would be kind of compass.

At last if teacher told you that others things that are not created by Fe,Co,Ni cannot interact with this force they are wrong because you can actually find videos of levitating strawberries because of extremely strong electromagnetic field.
There is also very special attribute of electromagnetism, if you have wire without elctricity and magnet somehow rotating around you can create electricity.
That is way to create elctricity for your house. For example water flowing rotating turbine and magnets around wire is way to get energy. Or by wind rotating turbine or hot H2O flowing in reactor.

Thats about it.
Dragallur

1) Triangles: Prologue

Hi guys,
i am starting new row of posts from mathematics. (Of course I will also do fundamental forces.)
I would like to talk about triangles.

So they are geometrical objects with three edges and three vertices.
Triangle illustration.svgThere are many kinds of triangles because you can have different angles at vertices and your edges are different length. All of these properties fall under some rules. For example if you add up alpha, beta and gama angles you will always get 180 degrees.
Equilateral kind of triangle is special one because its sides are the same lenght with 60 degrees angles. Equilateral Triangle

Isosceles are those with same lenght of two sides and scalenes are those that are kind of chaotic because their sides or angles are not equal to others.
There are also kinds with one angle with 90 degrees. Then there is type of triangle with all angles smaller than 90 and, one with one angle bigger than 90.

There are similarities between triangles  if they meet some conditions.
First kind of condition is called SAS = side angle side
It means that if in one triangle has two sides and angle between them coresponding to second triangle´s sides and angle with same length (for sides) and measure (for angles) it is similar.
ASA = angle side angle
two angles “touching” side corresponding to second triangle
SSS = side side side
AAS = angle angle side
only one angle touching side

Sorry guys for this short and boring post, i just wanted to say this before i start to talk about trigonometric functions which are kind of my favourite.
Dragallur

Eclipse, bus ride and theory of relativity

Hi guys!
It is two days since eclipse of sun.
First of all I will just remind you what eclipse is.
So, it is shadow of moon, because of its rare position between sun and you.
Imagine having lamp. It is your sun. Take your hand (moon) and move it between you and lamp. That is how eclipse works.

There few kinds of it. There is full eclipse.
This one on the left is full eclipse from year of 1999. Picture was taken in France. For full eclipse you usually need to go to some specific place which is calculated by some math quys 😀 . Because that is the only position you can change… you can not change position of sun, moon or earth but you can travel yourself.

Here on left is picture of solar eclipse. You can see that shadow of moon is not visible everywhere… only on very small spot (about 250km^2) is full shadow.
There are lots of things that have to work together if you want for example to have full solar eclipse visible from window of your house.
Because moon is 400x smaller than Sun, Sun has to be 400x further away. At same point your house has to point exactly towards sun and at the same moment moon at right distance has to orbit across your point of view when you are looking at sun.
Well that wont happen 😀 .

Because moon is slowly going away from earth and sun is gaining volume, last full solar eclipse we will be able to see will be 600,000,000 years from now.
You can see list of eclipses on wikipedia. Next total one will be March 9 2016. But it will be somewhere in pacific ocean.

Anyway, two days ago I was in bus by the time when eclipse was seenable. Luckily i was sitting in back seat from which you can see huge part of sky. Well I forgot to take some kind of black glass so I saw it for few seconds before I was too blinded, hope nothing happened to my eyes. Anyway I am looking forward to next eclipse and I hope that you guys did see it!

Eclipse was very important when Einstein wanted proof for theory of relativity. He was predicting that as huge objects bend spacetime, light will be curved if between sun and you is some object with huge gravitional field. Actually moon has too weak gravity so you cannot really see it but when you have quasar and black hole is between quasar and you, you can see that effect of bended spacetime. It is called effect of gravitational lens. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_lens On wikipedia page you can see short video of how it looks like, it is pretty amazing.

Thank you for your likes,
Dragallur

One ghost is not enough

Hi guys!
This is just a short post about a game which I created.
It is called One ghost is not enough (you will get it when you play it).
Here is dropbox link for it: https://www.dropbox.com/s/qb27f1v3fime9gn/One%20ghost%20is%20not%20enough.exe?dl=0

It is completely spam and virus free (still, it depends if you believe me). I made it in freeware program called Game Maker.

You are ghost which is trying to escape crystals. There are various levels but i recommend to play them in order.
Thanks to those who try it, I appreciate some comments below.
Dragallur
PS. next post will be again on science

2) Four fundamental forces: Gravitation

Gravity or gravitation is one of four fundamental forces in the universe. It is also the weakest one as I said in the last post. Unlike other forces it works on much bigger distances. And it only pushes things together.
Imagine having a planet like Earth. It has poles. South pole and north pole. We can see that Earth gravity is pretty strong, it holds us here. So if electromagnetic force is 10^40(something like that) stronger, shouldn´t be electromagnetic field of earth insanely strong? No because electromagnetism works with +(plus) and -(minus) and they will cancel out (almost). Strong and weak interaction are working only on short distances so when you are forming galaxy or star you will work only with gravity.

There are two ways of imagining gravity. (Actually there are more but those are basic)
1) Newton´s way
It says something like this: Every particle in universe attracts all other particles in universe by force which is higher when mass of particles is bigger and is lower when particles are far away each other. Its equation is F=G*(m1*m2)/r
F is force of gravity
G is gravity constant (you can find it on wikipedia)
m1,m2 are masses of your objects
r is distance of objects
2)Einstein´s way

Spacetime is bended by all particles with mass. And it works with all particles even those which are massless, like photons.
https://i0.wp.com/www.aldebaran.cz/bulletin/2011_44/krivost.jpgNewton´s way does not actually explain some things like orbital of Mars (so it is kind of broken).
On the left is picture of spacetime. You can also imagine your bed which is probably very soft and when you push your matress it goes down. At that point your fist is actually kind of planet, star or black hole and it atracts other stuff around. If you take a ball lay it next to your hand it will go down to center of that hole you created.
I have found awesome video on gravity so here is link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTY1Kje0yLg
You will see that all forces have some force carrier. Gravitational carrier is massless particle called graviton. It is theoretical, which means it was not detected. Scientists even think that it cannot be detected, but we can see what it does: Gravity!

Thanks for your follows,
Dragallur

P.1: http://www.aldebaran.cz/bulletin/2011_44/krivost.jpg

1) Four fundamental forces: Prologue

Hi again, for fourth time!
I am subscribing some science channels on youtube. SciShow, VSauce, MinutePhysics or Veritasium. They are all awesome and I would like to recommend them to you. Plus I would like to thank to them because I learned a lot of stuff from them.
Anyway, few weeks ago I watched serie from SciShow. There were videos about fundamental forces. Because I would like to write about what i learned on this blog it inspired me to do something similar and try to explain what are those fundamental forces.

This post will only be about what are they together and then I want to talk about them one by one.

So there are four fundamental forces. You could also say basic forces. They have some similarities and all of them have force carriers.
First one is gravitation. It is probably the most strangest one. Gravitation is strange because it only pulls things together. Gravitation is atribute of every particle with mass. It is also crazy weak. Electromagnetic pull between two particles with different charge is 10^42 stronger than gravitation between two particles!

Next one is electromagnetism. It occurs between two objects with some charge. On the beginning of 19th century electromagnetism was created by putting together electric force and magnetic force.

Another is weak interaction. It is (for me) far more complicated i think. It affects very small stuff like quarks. It is also responsible for beta decay. Its carrier is photon.

Last one, also very complicated is strong interaction. Strong interaction is very strong. It is that strong that it can create new massive particles! Again it works on small scale and its force carrier is gluon.

Well that was short overview for fundamental forces. I will talk about them later, one by one.
Thank you for your likes and comments, as I said before, I really appreciate them!
Dragallur
PS. something about radioactive decay is coming!

What are really bright objects in universe?

Today in my 3rd post I would like to tell you something about two kinds of objects (from universe) which are very bright.

First one is quasar and blazar. As far as i know they are probably same thing but from different angle of view. They are very bright and in middle of them are black holes (if you want to read something about BH then read my second post).

When stars or lot of stuff (dust) around hole starts to accelerate toward the black hole, lot of heat and radiation will be created because particles in high speed will rub againt each other. This will create massive disk around hole. That is called quasar/blazar and it can be even brighter then our own Galaxy!

Second object is Supernova.
It is created in two ways. I will try to explain only the first one because again, i dont really understand how the second works.
Anyway, imagine you have white dwarf (like our sun when it will be few billions years older). It is object which has such mass like our sun but it is big like Earth. It is shining even that termonuclear reaction does not occur anymore. After some time it will turn to black (cold) dwarf. But if this dwarf gains some mass again and heat inside core will be high enough to create another round of reaction it will violently explode! Picture on the left shows galaxy and that “little” point is actually supernova. It does not shine long time, only for weeks or months.

So those are the two bright objects in our universe. I hope i did not miss something important.
Btw. thanks to people who liked my posts, i really appreciate that.
Dragallur
PS. next time I will probably move to something on the earth!

P.1: Quasar. (2015, March 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:47, March 20, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quasar&oldid=649527988

P.2: Supernova. (2015, March 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:47, March 20, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Supernova&oldid=651800657