# Wormholes

Hi! So what is a wormhole?
Wormhole is kind of similar to black hole.
It does have really strong gravitational field but not that much as black hole. The thing is that black hole bends space time much more than wormhole — it has singularity in the middle. Wormhole does NOT have singularity, because it does not have enough strong gravity.
When it does not have singularity it also can not have event horizont.
So what makes it a hole?
When it bends spacetime it can create tunnel from one point of universe to another through higher dimension this could be used for traveling really long distances. Black hole cannot do this because its gravity is too strong.

Now it is clear so lets move to spacetraveling through wormholes. First you can imagine it with lower dimensions which are pretty easy. So 0th dimension is pretty useless since it is just point so we will jump right for 1st dimension. It is only line, not very complicated right? You have line which 1km long. You have to get from one end to another but you dont have enough time. You will take shortcut through 2nd dimension! You will take this line and bend it to circle, so now that point which you wanted to visit is right next to you! From 2nd dimension to 3rd it is also very easy to imagine, you can actually see it above. Take a paper (that is your space) and on one edge draw point and draw same one on opposite part. Then bend this paper so those points are touching, you have been traveling faster than light! Well it is not fair, it´s like saying Usain Bolt to run 1000m and you running only 50m, quess who will win, light.
It is named wormhole because worm in apple is using 3rd dimension instead of traveling on the surface of apple.

Problem with wormholes is that higher dimensions than 4th (which is time) are only in really small scale: 10^-33 centimeters. This length is not really usable for traveling but really old wormholes could be bigger caused to expanding of universe. Another problem is their stability because they would need to have lot of “exotic” matter to last longer than moments. Last thing is that wormholes are only hypothetical, wormhole has never been observed.

Dragallur
PS: I have edited it once because there were some mistakes and it did not make any sense before.
PSS (26.11.2015): light is not 4th dimension as you can read in this post.

# Why won´t we visit Mars?

Hi guys!
Because yesterday I saw movie Interstellar I have got an idea! Lets write something about space traveling!

Btw. Interstellar is really awesome movie and I highly recommend you to watch. There are some things that does not make any sense but whole movie is really great, and long (165 minutes).

So, there are some plans to visit Mars (with people), maybe you already heard about it.
First of all: Why should we visit it?
1) Prestige, country which would create this expedition would gain prestige, like with Apollo 11 mission
2) Science, we would gain lot of informations about Mars if people would stay there
Second of all: What are the problems?
1) Radiation, because astronauts would not have ozon layer like on ISS they would get huge amount of radiation from Sun. We would need probably some amazing material or faster plane.
2) Energy, Mars is far away.. which means that you need lot of energy. Yes satelites can get there with solar panels but humans would get too much radiation from that time in space.
3) Food, for half a year there needs to be lot of food for those people.

As you can see problem 1,3 could be solved by faster plane… which would probably rise problem 2.. we would not be able to store so much energy considered to reasonable amount of space.
For me, I would quess that It will take more than 70 years to get somebody to another planet.

If you can come up with another idea, feel free to share it down below in the comments.
Dragallur

# 2) Particles: Neutrinos

Hi!
I am back again with particles post. I was thinking if first should be about electrons or photons and then I realized that neutrinos are kind of really special and fun so I will start with them.

Neutrinos are small particles in group called leptons.
They can be created by thermonuclear reaction which is happening in stars so there are huge amounts of them flying in the Universe. Actually there is so much of them that every second millions of them will pass through every cm^2 of your body. Before it was thought that they are massless which would mean that they are able to travel at the spead of light which is not true, they have some mass but it is not much.
It is really hard to detect them but there are machines that can do that. I think that one of them is built under ice in the Antarctic continent. Even when there is so many neutrinos it can detect only extremely small fraction of them (I would not try to quess the numbers).
Neutrinos also dont interact very much so they are able to pass through whole earth without slowing down.
Supernovas are also really great source of neutrinos but they do not occur that often.
On the Earth we create it in nuclear reactors and neutrinos are also made inside the Earth because as I said in some previous post when material is beta decaying it will release neutrinos.
In the year of 2011 there was mistake when measuring the speed of neutrinos. Computer counted that traveling neutrino was able to travel distance 60 nanoseconds faster than light which is not possible. Soon they luckily knew where was the mistake.
Dragallur

# What is the life cycle of stars?

Hi!
Somehow I wanted to write something from universe… not really I am still sitting in my hometown so here it is:

Well, stars (as our Sun) DO have beginning and end as you probably heard already. It can have different length.
First of all there have to be material. I mean lot of material because as you know our sun is huge. (Sun is bigger that 90% of stars)
This material comes from other stars that are dead now and theirs material probably came up from Big bang.
There are extremely large clouds that are called Molecular clouds. In them is lot of stuff and mostly H2.
If there is enough stuff at one place (it is really dense) it can make up planet which is either stony or made from gas.
If there is enough stuff it will make even larger gas planet than Jupiter or Saturn.
At that point all of this H2 will be pulled toward the center with magnificent force. That will create heat because atoms will be brushing against each other. If there is enough heat termonuclear reaction will occur which will normalize that pull of gravity and whooo! we have new born star!
Termonuclear reaction will change Hydrogen to Helium. Helium is heavier so it will go toward center and just a little bit of Hydrogen will be left on the edges. If the star is enough heavy it will start to change Helium to Carbon or Oxygen (I think). It will continue with couple of rounds until there in the middle is Lead (Pb). Than it will never be able to go forward and the life cycle will kind of end. Few more termonuclear reactions will occur (That is called red giant because it will greatly gain volume and the it will lose it) but then gravitation will win and if that star was small (even like our Sun) White Dwarf will be the END.
White dwarf is only really dense and hot piece of stuff.
If it was heavier.
Neutron star (made of only neutrons) will be the next stage. It extremely dense thing with tremendous gravitational field.
The last thing which can happen is Black hole, you can read about them in one of my first posts, they are absolutely awesome!

Dragallur
PS: if white dwarf gains again enough mass because of some stuff from space it can heavily explode into Supernova

# Why can not we travel faster than light?

Hi,
today I will write just a fun post about why we can not travel faster than light (even then it is desirable… as is written on mathbloggers cool blog: https://mathblogger101.wordpress.com/ ).

So there are some things that will start to happen when you go really fast.
First of all I would like to say that speed cannot be added because it would couse some trouble (like putting headlight of your car ON while driving).
There is simple equation which you can find on internet which says how speeds works when you are “adding” them.
Well another thing is that stuff is gaining mass while it goes faster but there is some effect only in higher speeds. (Athlete girls should not check their weight while running, they could be disappointed.)
It is exponential so you would need to give infinite amount of energy to system to get that speed, which would release infinite amount of heat and that would destroy everything, you just can not take that much of coal.
There is also another problem about which you maybe did not know.
Because this is electromagnetism whem moving around. If you read that post about EM you know that electromagnetic force carrier is photon.
What is the speed of photon? 300 000km/s
That means that photon which is responsible for your moving can not move you faster than it is traveling!
I will not be able to run faster with bricks for building if my maximal speed is 2m/s.

VSauce1 made a awesome point of what would happen with car traveling at speed of light and pushing its headlights on. If you know what is Doppler effect you can come up with the answer really quickly.. It is that WWWWŽŽŽŽŽMMMM of train or car traveling towards and than away from you but with sound. Same thing would happen to car at speed of light. For passenger inside nothing would happen, time would not happen because nothing like lenght which can travel light in one second would not happen for him because from his view light would not move any distance in one second…

Dragallur
PS: if you know about any reason why speed of light is 300 000km/s let me know because I dont

# 1) Particles: Prologue

Hi guys!
I am back with probably short post because I am lazy and tired these days. I know I wanted to start something about triangles but right now I am not that excited for it so I will make some posts about particles. I talked about some before but I have never explained what the hell are quarks for example.

So first of all… particles. Well we think about them like small stuff that is everywhere and everything is made up of it. That is right.
So I will start with molecules, easy peasy those are just two or more atoms made up together.
Atoms are (small), there is some stuff in them but first of all there are “kinds” of atoms, substances and that is Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, Carbon. They are made up all from the same things but with different amounts. Atoms are made up of core and shell. Usually, you wont do anything with core. It is very stable and not interacting. In our organism there are only changes in molecules. That means that some atoms will move somewhere else and that will change molecules properties.
Shell is made up of electrons. Electrons are NOT made up of something else, it is just primal stuff. Electron belongs to group of particles that are called elementary particles. It´s sub-group is called fermions and its sub-sub-group is leptons which are really small and light.
Core is made up of neutrons and protons. As I talked about them in four fundamental forces series those are particles (sub-atomic) that are hold together by strong force. Anyway protons are positive and neutrons neutral.
There is huge experiment going on in Japanese which is trying to proof that protons are decaying. Its problem is that one proton has half time about 10^31 years long. They did nice trick so they do not need to wait so long by monitoring ultra clear water. There are thousands tons of water and their machines are able to detect any proton decaying to photons.
Photons are also elemental particles but their sub-group is special for particles that are carriers for fundamental force: photon, gluon, bosons but not graviton because he is only hypothetical. Photons are massless which is why they can travel at the speed of light.
At last for review there are quarks which are elemental particles, even fermions like electrons but they are in special group for quarks.
I actually read something about quarks not being elemental (only hypothetical). It was said that if they are not elemental we can not be sure that there is unlimited number of smaller and smaller particles.

This was just a short preview of what I will write about next time.
Dragallur

# Can Two 2’s Produce 5?

This is amazing, check it out!

# 5) Four fundamental forces: Strong interaction

Hi there!
I am back again! I was very sick with great temperatures but now I am alright with idea what to write about so I am bringing probably the last post for four fundamental forces today with strong interaction as the strongest of all forces.

Again on the left I have here proton. There are two parts of strong interaction, first is color force which is the stronger one and it holds particles, like hadrons (particles made of quarks) together. You probably heard of colors of quarks, there is green red and blue (RGB) and in such particle like proton or neutron those colors always have to add up to white color. If it would be antiparticle it would have anti red, anti green and anti blue.

Again on left you can see how these colors add up to white. Well what happens is that there is gluon, particle which is carrier for strong interaction and it jumps from quark to quark and when it touches it changes its color. There is great animation in this video, I recommend to watch it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNDOSMqGLlg
This color force is extremely strong so it does not let quarks to go apart. It is even that strong that when you break it new quark will be created from that huge amount of energy! Scientist think that right after big bang when particles were really fast and close to each other there was state of matter called quark-gluon plasma which was kind of soup of quarks and gluons. It is hypothetic and it was not yet created in LHC or somewhere else.

There is that second part of strong interaction called: nuclear force. I am not really sure about it, but anyway you maybe wondered why does nucleas exists when protons(+) should repell each other and that is made by particles called pions which are carrying quarks around and they are creating reaction which is attractive.

On the end, pions are particles made up of two quarks but one of them has to be antiquark so they looks like this:
There are three types of pions and those are Pi+, Pi-, Pi 0. Their life time is incredibly short and they are decaying to neutrinos or gamma rays.

That will be all,
Dragallur