after few hours of study I am bringing next post, this time I am returning to where everything begun, The Sun!
So Sun is the center of our Solar System. But it is far away from the center of our galaxy as you can see on picture (it is about 27000 light years).
Sun is the brightest object on our sky with apparent magnitude -26,74 (I will definitely make post about apparent magnitude because I found it very interesting). Sun makes up of 99.8% of Solar
System´s mass so you have no way of thinking that Jupiter is big. It is 1.4 million kilometers across with mass 333,000 of Earths.
The surface temperature is 5,000°C. Surface here is the edge of what we see, or also edge of photo sphere which I will mention later on.
In the core there are temperatures about 15,000,000°C.
Sun is fusing hydrogen into helium as most stars do. Still in the core there are some more heavy elements like carbon, oxide, neon and others but only in small parts.
Every second our Sun burns 700,000,000 tuns of hydrogen which fuses into 695,000,000 tuns of helium. Those 5 millions is heat escaping the star. This is the same weight as 15 Empire State Buildings! But even more astounding is that this energy equals to 400 billions of megatons of nuclear bombs every second! That is why we feel the heat even from such a distance.
So, there are few layers. (Whole Sun is rotating but different layers in different speeds.)
Core: is the hottest part which takes up over 20% of Sun´s radius (not 20% of volume, remember, it is sphere). Here the fusion takes part.
Radiative zone: stretches to 0.7 of Sun´s radius. There are hypothesis that this zone with next zone creates magnetic field of Sun. Also here the energy is transferred by diffusion.
Convective zone: This zone is almost the rest of Sun´s volume. Here like in ocean hot gas goes up and colder down in process called convection.
Photo sphere: is the visible part of Sun. It is thousands of kilometers thick and much much colder and it has very low density (0.37% of air density on sea level).
Corona: is the outer layer of Sun. We are not really sure why but it is ridiculously hot, about 1-2 million °C even that it spreads 1-2 Sun radii from Sun´s surface. It is even less dense than photo sphere so you can not see it without telescopes blocking Sun or Sun eclipse.
For photon it can take 100-200 thousands year to escape from core because right after photon is created it collides with some particle which blasts it away with less energy so this photon is kinda lost for a long time.
Solar flares are events when charged stuff interacts with plasma. This creates eruption (last picture).
Coronal mass ejections happen when two opposite magnetic fields interact with each other throwing lot of stuff into space and some electromagnetic radiation (first picture).
Both events are connected and can occur together. In the year of 2012 we were very lucky since one coronal mass ejection appeared but thankfully missed us (this CME was so strong that it would probably cut off most of electronic circuits and we would be recovering for very long time).
This is end for today, I hope u guys liked this little bit longer post.
PS: I was taking information from lot of sites but I forgot to copy their URL but it was wiki, NASA and some others from first pages on google.