Planets of our Solar System: Neptune

here it goes, here it comes the last post for the series: Planets of our Solar System, maybe if you discover new one I will mention it.
Ok so today I am going to write about Neptune, the eight planet of Solar System, you will see how much we now about thing which is so far away, lets go!

As I said, Neptune is eight planet and the last once since Pluto is no Neptune Full Disk View - GPN-2000-000443.jpglonger considered to be planet (I will make sure to write epitaph about him).

It was discovered not by accident but by math. When Uranus was discovered and its motion across sky was calculated astronomers saw that it is not on the place where it should be. This was because of Neptune which is influencing Uranus. This happened in the year of 1846 and was discovered by Johann Gall and astronomy student Louis d`Arrest.
Neptune was named after Neptune, the roman god of sea. Greek equivalent is Poseidon of course. orbits at the distance of 4.5 billions kilometers. Its radius is 25,000 km and he is little smaller than Uranus but much denser.
He gets 1\800 of the Suns energy as we do and as other gas giants in our Solar System he is radiating more energy than recieving, 2.7 times more.
Interior of Neptune is similar to Uranus`s.
The core makes up two thirds of the planets radius and is made up of rock, ice and some iron and nickel silicates.

Mantle is similar to Uranus`s and there are also probably small diamonds created from methane molecules.

Atmosphere is made up of hydrogen and helium but because Neptune is ice giant there is only  80% of hydrogen and 19% of helium. There is also methane which creates the same effect as on Uranus, it absorbs red light which makes the planet blue. Atmosphere also makes 5 to 10 % of planets weight.
The atmosphere is much more violent than Uranus`s. There are frequent storms and as far as I know they (not counting solar winds :D) are fastest in Solar System.. 2000 kmh. When Voyager 2 flyed around Neptune it saw a giantic storm in its atmosphere. It was similar to Red Giant Spot which is on Jupiter. It was called Dark Giant Spot and it soon dissapeared but some other stormy features appear often (You can see it on the picture).
On the surface is temperature higher than on Uran, about -213°C.

Neptune has magnetosphere and it is as strange as the one on Uranus. It is moved by about half of planet`s radius which astronomers think can be feature of all ice giants. Neptune also has aurora.

There are 5 known rings of Neptune and 14 moons about which I will talk  in future episodes of Moons of our Solar System, so stay tuned.


Pictures taken from wikipedia and and

WTF? A conspiracy? 4) Identical backgrounds

with one day pause I am coming with post about conspiracy theory of Moon landing. Yes again there is another “argument” by those hoaxers which I am going to crush to pieces thanks to awesome Phil Plait and his Bad Astronomy webpage.
This time lets focus on identical backgrounds on two images which were surely taken from very different distances and they must be faked because NASA was too lazy and they used same background twice.

Ok so here are the pictures from Apollo 15. On the first one where you can see more of those mountains there is no moonlanding apparatus and there is this rocky ground. While on the other there is the opposite but on both pictures there are same “backgrounds” used.
Fine here comes the debunktion. On Moon things stuff does not behave as one would execpt. On Earth we can judge distances by things around because we already know their size from experience, like house, shrub or car. But we dont have these things on Moon.
Once I was looking into the heart of Black Canyon in USA. It was one of the best things I have seen in my entire life and the same thing happened, I was not able to judge the distance.. it looked like that the bottom is 200 meters below me, but bottom of Black Canyon can be almost 700 meters (on the picture you can see the tallest cliff in Colorado, it was taken from wikipedia, thanks).

So there are no things by which you could judge the size of stuff which means that you dont really know how far it is + we also judge by the blur of the air. When there is stuff far away it is much less visible but on the Moon there is everything perfectly clear and you dont know if the rock is meter, 2, 200 or 10000 far away. Here is nice video which will blow your mind and show that you simply can not trust your eyes.

This means that the first picture is probably much closer to the mountains but still very very far away since they are on both pictures of identical size.

Check out the debunking of: Flag, Stars. And the prologue.