Problems that we will have to face

Disclaimer: This is my opinion, not advised by anybody, feel free to comment below.


There are two problems that we as humans will have to face. I will write about the two that I think are crucial and only now people start to appreciate them.

The first problem is Global warming. It poses a lot of threats not only to fragile ecosystems but to whole Earth. Some of the effects listed from Wikipedia are: extreme weather, sea level rise, ocean acidification, changes in agriculture, environmental migration and much, much more [1].

Global warming is the first problem that we need to address but in this post, I will concentrate on the next issue on the list. Humanity will eventually die out if we are not able to spread in the Universe [2].

First, we could of course ask the question when we should colonize other planets or even if it is good idea. Let’s take a scenario, when humanity successfully colonizes Mars and at the same time Earth is becoming more inhabitable. At some point, we simply leave it behind, maybe let it rejuvenate without ever learning how to live in a way that does not cause rest of life extinct. What would continue? Maybe we will be able to spread out in the rest of the Solar System and eventually leave it behind. In what state though? And does it even matter if Mars which is right now mostly empty wasteland suffers any damage if it is even possible? Maybe we would change into species that travels the Universe and leaves dead rocks behind? What if we encountered other life out there, would them await the same fate as Earth? We are authors of our own morality and clearly there does not seem to be objective one. Our values change, we are starting to really appreciate our surroundings, the question is, are we fast enough?

Picture of Mount Sharp on Mars, taken by Curiosity rover.


Note: I am aware that there are different things that could happen. I took time today to write shortly out what I thought about one of them.

[1] There are also problems not related to Global warming but are as well very global, for example what are we going to do with plastic.

[2] See also, gamma ray bursts, solar eruptions (big problem but probably no immediate deaths), huge asteroid collisions and other things that would wipe us out.

Gamma-ray bursts

today I want to look on some pretty energetic stuff. This time it will be gamma-ray bursts or GRBs.
I was inspired by episode of Crash Course which you can watch here.

GRBs are the most energetic and violent events which as far as we know can occur in our Universe.
They were discovered by accident. In the late sixties USA was trying to detect if Soviets are using nuclear tests even after Nuclear Ban Test Treaty. This treaty was signed by Soviets, UK and USA. It banned to test nuclear weapons except underground. Mostly to reduce the amount of radioctive waste released into atmosphere and to slow down nuclear progress during cold war (on the picture president Kennedy signs the treaty).

So USA was checking if there is any radiation from the atmosphere from Soviets. Indeed there was some radiation but too strange to be from nuclear bomb. It was just a short very strong glimpse of gamma burst.
Soon it was clear that it comes from space but noone was sure what is its source. All of those bursts were far too short so before any telescope turned to the source they disapeared.
Until 1991 when Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was launched practically no progress was made. CGRO was fast enough to rotate when some GRB occured and then it sent coordinates to telescopes on Earth which found out that the sources of GRBs are billions of light years away! This was such a breakthrough because those events was found out gammarayburstenergies2a.gifthat have to be extremely powerful.
But nothing so powerful exists so what they came up with was that when supernova (or hypernova) explodes the energy is lensed in two beams opposite to each other.
This is one type of GRB, the more studied. As you can see on the picture GRBs are only visible if they are pointed toward you which is much smaller fraction of those which actually occur.
The other type is long GRB, those make up of 30% of all GRBs and they are created by merging of two massive objects like two neutron stars or neutron star and black hole.

GRBs are really dangerous. The energy they emit is so high (for example the energy GRB can equal to energy of Sun, released in seconds) that if one of them in Milky Way would be pointed right towards us it would definitely cause mass extinction, like really large one.
Luckily the probability of such event is so low that we will most likely be killed by something else.

While we can see about one GRB per day they happen about once 100,000-1,000,000 years in galaxy of Milky Way’s size. The most distance one was detected to be 30,000,000,000 light years away.