How are balls related to supernovas?

well this question seems to be pretty strange. But balls are related in a bit complicated way to supernovas as you will see.
I was just watching cool video. I thought that it is cool enough that I will make a post about it, so here you go: stacked ball drop (thanks Physics Girl).

So in the video Physics Girl explains why when you stack balls on top of each other with increasing mass and let them fall that the top one will bounce so much.

When you have only one ball and you let it fall from some height, it will bounce less because there is energy which is used by the sound it makes, heat, friction and so on. When there is ball on the first one they drop at the same rate so they stay stacked on each other and then at one point where the lower one hits ground it is going to press little bit, conserving the energy and then bouncing back with the top ball still lying there on the surface of the lower one.

Top is going to be pushed harder by the lower one which causes it to bounce many more times than before since the first ball is heavier and stores more energy in the bounce.

Some videos will show you basketball ball, tennis ball and golf ball for example.

How is this related to supernova? Well what happens when massive star goes supernova is that in one of few types star’s core collapses, into neutron star or black hole.

Above, in A you have the onion like structure of huge star with various elements. In B the center collapses but there is so much energy it wont stay like this but it rather bounces from itself with tremendous speed ans as the other layers wanted to follow they will bounce even more like those balls about which I talked above. This is why there is so much energy in this explosion, each layer gets more energy than previous with the top one going of with tremendous energy in speeds close to speed of light.

The center is not able to escape but it rather collapses under its own gravity into black hole if it is heavy enough and if not than into neutron star.


1st picture
2nd picture


Civilizations: Kardashev scale

I learned some stuff about fermi paradox and alien worlds in past few days so I will try to do my best in describing this stuff. I found it really interesting.

So there is scale which is called Kardashev scale. It is scale that describes civilizations by three levels: Type I, Type II and Type III.

Type I
It is type that we are heading towards. Civilization of type I should be able to use all the available resources on its home planet which means it could fuse hydrogen into helium by nuclear fusion or it could use antimatter-matter anihilation to create enormous amounts of energy and would use sunlight, windpower or waterflow in large scales.

Type II
Type two civilisation would need even more energy which would cause in using all or almost all energy created by closest star (Sun). This “thing” is called Dyson´s sphere because it surrounds star and collects its energy. There are different types of Dyson´s sphere like: ring or swarm which are not that effective.

Type III
It is only extension to Type II because that civilisation would be able to use the energy of whole galaxy or multiple galaxies by Dyson´s spheres. Also there are some things like white holes or quasars which would also create a lot of energy so this type of civilisation could use them.

There is also extension for IV and V type.
4th would use whole universe while 5th would be able to use energy from multiple universes.