the title could be misleading but that is actually what I will write about. What happened to me this week in the school was pretty interesting. We were in chemistry class and it was nothing too unusual. Then at one point the teacher said something what sounded to me very illogical, this would not be for the first time, last time the teacher said that plasma has to do a lot with absolute zero -_-.
What happened this day was very suprising to me, it was this reaction below:
Two molecules of water will change into hydroxide and hydronium. This process will go back because of chemical equlibrium.
Why? When I saw this on the chalkboard I thought that this is some kind of crap, but actually it is very interesting. At first I thought that she just forgot to write some kind of catalyzator but no, this is equation.. it seemed to me that she wants me to believe that water just alone changes to base and acid.
Now this actually really happens. The problem is that the concetration of such ions is
This is not much since one mol is the number of carbon-12 atoms in 12 grams while this is much more space in decimeter and there is not many moles in there (10−7).
How this happens? Well you may ask, why should water do this? Is it not stable? Well this is because of random fluctuations inside the molecules which may cause such thing. For every ten hours this happens approximitely once per molecule of water. The process takes only few femto seconds which is quite cool and after sometime I guess that it will just return while other molecules will do this again (because there are both acidic and basic ions they will cancel out so water is neutral).
This is important since this is why water is conductive, because there are ions even in pure water. This process is called self-ionization or autoprotolysis.
today I am writing from Brazil which is why I had this few day pause from writing. I have got and idea to write about some elements of periodic table so this post will rather be mess of some stuff I found over time, probably a bit related to astronomy.
First of all I will start with one thing that comes to my mind and that is Hydrogen and Helium. Only those two elements in astronomy count as something different than metal.
The reason for this is that astronomers wanted to make some difference between the most important elements in universe and the rest and the rest was almost all metal.
Iron will be the next stop for me. Iron is very special because it is the last element which can be created through thermonuclear fusion. Actually star can fuse iron but only to isotope 55 and then the reaction would take energy to fuse any higher so it is the ending point of stars life. Higher elements can be created in supernovas.
Now let me jump right on the end of periodic table. The last known element is Ununoctium. It has proton number 118. He is also the last known noble gas right after Radon but this element with many others is synthetic which means that you can not find him in the nature and is only made in lab.
Once I asked my chemistry teacher where will be next element since Ununoctium marks the end of another period.
Sadly I had to find out by myself. The next one of course will be right under Francium.
But what is more interesting is that element with 121 proton number will have another shell filled, now it will be G shell. This element would also be the first superactinide.
To read more on this topic check out:
Island of stability
Interactive periodic table
today I am coming with second option for end of our Universe. This one is probably little better since there is nothing ripped apart.
Because most of stuff which is going on in our Universe happens in stars, atoms are slowly decaying into radiation.
That is because of process called thermonuclear reaction which is happening in all stars. Below is scheme of what is going on when two hydrogen atoms merge up together at very high temperatures. Most of energy is decayed in form of gamma rays and then some in neutrinos. This stuff will eventually fly around and it wont ever be used up again.
After lot of generations of stars there will be no more gas to form new ones and all of the energy will be equally spread out which would mean maximum entropy in our Universe. No new reactions and nothing more happening here.
Somehow I wanted to write something from universe… not really I am still sitting in my hometown so here it is:
Well, stars (as our Sun) DO have beginning and end as you probably heard already. It can have different length.
First of all there have to be material. I mean lot of material because as you know our sun is huge. (Sun is bigger that 90% of stars)
This material comes from other stars that are dead now and theirs material probably came up from Big bang.
There are extremely large clouds that are called Molecular clouds. In them is lot of stuff and mostly H2.
If there is enough stuff at one place (it is really dense) it can make up planet which is either stony or made from gas.
If there is enough stuff it will make even larger gas planet than Jupiter or Saturn.
At that point all of this H2 will be pulled toward the center with magnificent force. That will create heat because atoms will be brushing against each other. If there is enough heat termonuclear reaction will occur which will normalize that pull of gravity and whooo! we have new born star!
Termonuclear reaction will change Hydrogen to Helium. Helium is heavier so it will go toward center and just a little bit of Hydrogen will be left on the edges. If the star is enough heavy it will start to change Helium to Carbon or Oxygen (I think). It will continue with couple of rounds until there in the middle is Lead (Pb). Than it will never be able to go forward and the life cycle will kind of end. Few more termonuclear reactions will occur (That is called red giant because it will greatly gain volume and the it will lose it) but then gravitation will win and if that star was small (even like our Sun) White Dwarf will be the END.
White dwarf is only really dense and hot piece of stuff.
If it was heavier.
Neutron star (made of only neutrons) will be the next stage. It extremely dense thing with tremendous gravitational field.
The last thing which can happen is Black hole, you can read about them in one of my first posts, they are absolutely awesome!
PS: if white dwarf gains again enough mass because of some stuff from space it can heavily explode into Supernova