fields? Well yes, this is probably the last post before I will write about Higgs boson. Today you will learn that everything is made up of fields and that particle is just a special vibration.
Take for example magnet, it is something totally special if you think about it. Not that it sticks to stuff but that you can feel how it wants to stick without actually touching anything, just through EMPTY SPACE!
Magnet has his magnetic field all around, that is why we can feel it from some distance and the strength decreases with distance increasing.
On the picture above you can see lines of force around magnet.
This is electromagnetism and now we know that there is electromagnetic field around all the stuff that have charge. We know that we can magnetize needle using electric current.
This field is not only around magnets but also around all things that have mass, this is called gravitational field and even that it does not sound very exciting to us, in Newtonian age it was very cool when Newton found out that there is similarity between apple falling on his head and Moon orbiting Earth!
What happens when you start to rapidly move with source of electromagnetic field? Well you create waves. If you do it well enough such waves will create light! This light then comes to you in quantum! If you do it more rapidly you will get gamma rays and if you do it less rapidly you will get radio waves. This is just a vibration of field.
Or when you take radioactive decay. There is neutron which somehow changes itself into proton, electron and antineutrino. This is just a change of vibration in various fields.
Now there are 4 fields if I do not count Higgs field. What physicists want to achieve is the prove that all those fields are just one field and everything is just a various vibration of it, creating the effect of gravity, electromagnetism and so on. This would be the Theory of Everything.
today I will return to electromagnetism as second fundamental force.
It is made up two forces which we are thinking like extremely different ones.
First I will talk about electro static force.
Well, It is quite easy. When you have two objects and one wants to give electron while the other would like to take some electrons and you will make them touch each other electrons will be jumping there creating one object negatively charged and second one positively charged. (F.g. when you pull your christmas sweather on you, in dark you can probably see little lightings and feel those small shocks.) It is the same wiith battery, one side wants to have electrons so when it is charged it does not have them while second one has lot of electrons but it doesn´t need them so through some wire this difference will be slowly going to equalize by flow of electrons.
Magnetism also works with electrons and that is why these forces could be connected to electromagnetism. Magnet is made up by some special material in which atoms are turning by their pluses and minuses. So in every magnet there are millions of magnets. It does not matter if you make it smaller there will always appear new south and north pole which is made by this turning of atoms.
+ -+ –
Here on right would be south pole (+) and on left would be north pole. It it would be really light (not heavy) and it could easily turn it would be kind of compass.
At last if teacher told you that others things that are not created by Fe,Co,Ni cannot interact with this force they are wrong because you can actually find videos of levitating strawberries because of extremely strong electromagnetic field.
There is also very special attribute of electromagnetism, if you have wire without elctricity and magnet somehow rotating around you can create electricity.
That is way to create elctricity for your house. For example water flowing rotating turbine and magnets around wire is way to get energy. Or by wind rotating turbine or hot H2O flowing in reactor.
Thats about it.