2) Particles: Neutrinos

Hi!
I am back again with particles post. I was thinking if first should be about electrons or photons and then I realized that neutrinos are kind of really special and fun so I will start with them.

Neutrinos are small particles in group called leptons.
They can be created by thermonuclear reaction which is happening in stars so there are huge amounts of them flying in the Universe. Actually there is so much of them that every second millions of them will pass through every cm^2 of your body. Before it was thought that they are massless which would mean that they are able to travel at the spead of light which is not true, they have some mass but it is not much.
It is really hard to detect them but there are machines that can do that. I think that one of them is built under ice in the Antarctic continent. Even when there is so many neutrinos it can detect only extremely small fraction of them (I would not try to quess the numbers).
Neutrinos also dont interact very much so they are able to pass through whole earth without slowing down.
Supernovas are also really great source of neutrinos but they do not occur that often.
On the Earth we create it in nuclear reactors and neutrinos are also made inside the Earth because as I said in some previous post when material is beta decaying it will release neutrinos.
In the year of 2011 there was mistake when measuring the speed of neutrinos. Computer counted that traveling neutrino was able to travel distance 60 nanoseconds faster than light which is not possible. Soon they luckily knew where was the mistake.
Dragallur

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1) Particles: Prologue

Hi guys!
I am back with probably short post because I am lazy and tired these days. I know I wanted to start something about triangles but right now I am not that excited for it so I will make some posts about particles. I talked about some before but I have never explained what the hell are quarks for example.

So first of all… particles. Well we think about them like small stuff that is everywhere and everything is made up of it. That is right.
So I will start with molecules, easy peasy those are just two or more atoms made up together.
Atoms are (small), there is some stuff in them but first of all there are “kinds” of atoms, substances and that is Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, Carbon. They are made up all from the same things but with different amounts. Atoms are made up of core and shell. Usually, you wont do anything with core. It is very stable and not interacting. In our organism there are only changes in molecules. That means that some atoms will move somewhere else and that will change molecules properties.
Shell is made up of electrons. Electrons are NOT made up of something else, it is just primal stuff. Electron belongs to group of particles that are called elementary particles. It´s sub-group is called fermions and its sub-sub-group is leptons which are really small and light.
Core is made up of neutrons and protons. As I talked about them in four fundamental forces series those are particles (sub-atomic) that are hold together by strong force. Anyway protons are positive and neutrons neutral.
There is huge experiment going on in Japanese which is trying to proof that protons are decaying. Its problem is that one proton has half time about 10^31 years long. They did nice trick so they do not need to wait so long by monitoring ultra clear water. There are thousands tons of water and their machines are able to detect any proton decaying to photons.
Photons are also elemental particles but their sub-group is special for particles that are carriers for fundamental force: photon, gluon, bosons but not graviton because he is only hypothetical. Photons are massless which is why they can travel at the speed of light.
At last for review there are quarks which are elemental particles, even fermions like electrons but they are in special group for quarks.
I actually read something about quarks not being elemental (only hypothetical). It was said that if they are not elemental we can not be sure that there is unlimited number of smaller and smaller particles.

This was just a short preview of what I will write about next time.
Dragallur