Optics: 7) So is it wave?

Hi,
in last post I was talking about the experiment that proved that light is wave, it is creating interference in the double slit experiment instead of two lines which one would assume if it was behaving as a particle. (You can imagine bullets instead of particles).

double-slit-bullets

If light was behaving as particle


So I found out that the particle part of light is bit more complicated so I wont try to explain it so much in the PRO sense but rather in few words, if you are more interested check out this page: 1)

With this theory that light is just a wave there were finally find some problems.

If you would very accurately measure light on some spot and this light would be dimmer and dimmer, you should get dimmer and dimmer picture. But at one point there were just dots!

ccd-spot

As the light is getting dimmer, with very good camera you can see that some pixels get much more energy than other.

As you might understand this was quite confusing. Wave should not make pattern like this.

Soon it was found out that when you measure brightness you can find bumps that should not be there if light would be wave, rather it should be quite uniform.

Finally what was concluded from this is that light behaves both as wave and particle, the attribute is called particle-wave duality.


What was also found at this time (something like beginning of 20th century) is that light comes in quantas. This has very interesting effect. If you would walk away from candle and would be able to distinquish individual photons at one point the candle would not shine less and less because at one point there will be only one quantum coming to you and quantum is not divisible so it would start to disappear more and more often but it would always shine. More detail here:

It was also found that not only photon but also other subatomical particles behave like waves and particles. In 20th century it was tested with electrons and sure! They also made this interference pattern on detector.

Dragallur

PS: This is my 200th post!

 

 

 

 

 

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Various fields for dummies!

Hi,
fields? Well yes, this is probably the last post before I will write about Higgs boson. Today you will learn that everything is made up of fields and that particle is just a special vibration.


Take for example magnet, it is something totally special if you think about it. Not that it sticks to stuff but that you can feel how it wants to stick without actually touching anything, just through EMPTY SPACE!

Magnet has his magnetic field all around, that is why we can feel it from some distance and the strength decreases with distance increasing.

On the picture above you can see lines of force around magnet.
This is electromagnetism and now we know that there is electromagnetic field around all the stuff that have charge. We know that we can magnetize needle using electric current.

This field is not only around magnets but also around all things that have mass, this is called gravitational field and even that it does not sound very exciting to us, in Newtonian age it was very cool when Newton found out that there is similarity between apple falling on his head and Moon orbiting Earth!

What happens when you start to rapidly move with source of electromagnetic field? Well you create waves. If you do it well enough such waves will create light! This light then comes to you in quantum! If you do it more rapidly you will get gamma rays and if you do it less rapidly you will get radio waves. This is just a vibration of field.

Or when you take radioactive decay. There is neutron which somehow changes itself into proton, electron and antineutrino. This is just a change of vibration in various fields.

Now there are 4 fields if I do not count Higgs field. What physicists want to achieve is the prove that all those fields are just one field and everything is just a various vibration of it, creating the effect of gravity, electromagnetism and so on. This would be the Theory of Everything.

Dragallur