Again I will write about civilizations but this time only about Dyson´s spheres which I mentioned before as a thing which would be used by civilization of type II and type III.
Because there is high probability of all civilizations using energy, we assume that all “worlds” will need more and more energy as their population grows.
At one point there wont be enough energy on its home planet. They/we will need some source of energy which would be kind of permanent. Here comes this Dyson´s sphere because it is a sphere which surrounds home star and collects its energy.
First there are smaller types of Dyson´s sphere like a Dyson´s ring. It is ring of objects sharing the same orbit and collecting energy of star. They would transfer the energy by wireless power transfer.
Expansion to ring is swarm which is lot of rings around star. BUT those ring´s orbit would intercept each other so it would be really difficult to avoid some crush.
To solve this you would have to have statellites instead of satellites. Those would be objects which would be stationary and they would not orbit the star. Those things would fight with gravity by large sail which would be pushed away from the star by solar wind. BUT this sail would have to be extremely light.. when I say extremely I mean very extremely because paper has 80g for squared meter and this sail would have to be about 0.7g for m^2. This would require ultra light nanotubes.
Last type is sphere which would collect almost all energy made by star. It would be extremely difficult to stabilize it and collect all the material.
I will talk about hyperons. Hyperons are not fundamental particles because they are made up by quarks, like neutrons or protons.
(to see what are quarks check this post: https://dragallur.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/3-particles-quarks/)
They are in the group of hadrons. It is group of particles that are made up by quarks so in this group are also Pions which are in the smaller group of mesons.
Btw. mesons are particles that are made up by pair of quark-antiquark.
While hyperons are in the group of baryons = particles with three quarks.
So the strange thing about them is that they have to have one strange quark so they can be hyperons. The most “common” one is similar to proton or neutron because he is made up of up, down and strange quark and he is called Lambda. There are twelve of them with different combinations of those three quarks, one of them, Omega has only strange quarks.
Ok, thats about it. They have also attribute of really fast decaying because strange quark is not very stable so they can not be found except in Hyperon stars. Those are heavier neutron stars in which hyperons wont decay because they have no space and gravity will hold them.
I know this title seems that my post will be complicated but actually it is pretty easy.
I want to return to my favourite topic: Black holes, and their size.
You probably know that inside black hole is singularity and that the edge is called event horizon. Its size is different from one black hole to another and we can use Schwarzschild radius (SR) to count it.
Schwarzschild radius is area from which light could not escape if you pressed this mass to area of sphere with Schwarzschild radius.
Its equation is:
r=2Gm/c^2 where r is radius, G is gravitational constant, m is mass of object, c is speed of light.
Earth´s SR is 9mm and Sun´s is 3km and if you would compress mass of observable Universe you would have SR of 13,7 billions of light years and super massive black hole in the middle of Milky way has Schwarzshild radius 7,8 millions of km which is also how big is its event horizon.
I had little pause but now I am coming back.
Today I want to write something about dwarfs because I found them little confusing.
We are talking about dwarfs in Universe not Tyrion.. there are six kinds:
- Brown dwarf
Brown dwarf is the only one which is not star. It is actually extremely big planet which almost made it for the size of star. This term is used because red dwarfs already existed.
Scientist are not really sure when it comes to the difference of planet and brown dwarf. Jupiter would have to be more than 50x larger to be brown dwarf.
- Red dwarf
Red dwarfs are “cool” stars. For example Proxima Centauri, the closest star is red dwarf. Their mass has to be about 0.08 of Sun to 0.5 of Sun´s mass. Red dwarfs are extremely common in Milky way as most of stars are smaller than Sun. That picture shows red dwarf and it would be more orange if showed from smaller distance.
- Yellow dwarfYellow dwarf is not really a dwarf. It is star which is about the same size like our Sun. Its temperature on the “top” is about 5000 to 6000 K.
- Blue dwarfBlue dwarfs are kind of related to red dwarfs because they are just a stage in their live. When red dwarf uses almost all of its hydrogen it will need to equalize with gravity and for that he uses temperature which rises and from red color it will shine in blue. This stage is only hypothetical because red dwarfs lifetime is really long and this could not yet happen.
- White dwarfWhite dwarfs are stage of all stars which wont make it to neutron stars or black holes. They are about the size of earth but much denser. From white dwarfs supernovas can explode.
- Black dwarfBlack dwarfs are only hypothetical but it is almost sure that they will happen when time comes. They are the next stage of white dwarfs. Black dwarf should not shine anymore because it is cool. They should be also really hard to detect because of their black color.
I have been writing about quarks a lot so now I would like to shortly summarize what they are.
Quarks have been discovered when scientists saw that paths of particles traveling close to neutron are distorted by some weak electromagnetic field. Then they discovered that neutron is neutral but it contains particles which are not neutral: quarks.
If I told you that protons and neutrons are only made up of three up and down quarks you could easily figure out what is inside them. Proton´s charge is +1 which means there has to be 2 ups and 1 down because UP(charge)=+2/3 DOWN(charge)=-1/3 === 2*2/3+(-1/3)=+1. While neutron is made up of two downs and one up which equals to 0.
As you can see from the table there are six types (flavors) of quarks. I talked only about two of them because they are much more common then charm, strange, top and bottom. The reason why those four are less common is that they are extremely heavy compared to up and down quarks and they will decay into up and downs. Up and downs can not decay to anything which makes them stable. Even then it is thought that proton (uud) can decay.. I talked about it earlier so you can check my other posts.
Flavor is one attribute but there is another. I mentioned it in post about strong interaction and it is color of quarks. There are three “colors”: RGB — red, green and blue and antired, antigreen and antiblue. Those colors always have to add up to white color. There are lot of combinations which can do this – RGB, antiRantiGantiB, blue and antiblue, red and anti red… and many others
It would be far too easy without gluons which are holding quarks together.
They are usually drawed as a short string between quarks. The thing that they do is color changing. They do it at two points: when they enter and when they leave quark.
There is hypothetical astronomical object called Quark star which should be made up of free quarks. Also it is thought that right after big bang there was state of matter in the Universe called quark-gluon plasma… soup of free quarks and gluons. We are not yet able to create this because it probably needs extremely high temperatures.
On the left is a picture which compares mass of quarks. On the botom you can see grey proton and really small, red electron. Top quark is the largest one.
Particles which are made up of quarks are sorted into different groups: mesons and baryons you can see on the picture what they can look like and how colors add up to white.
Because yesterday I saw movie Interstellar I have got an idea! Lets write something about space traveling!
Btw. Interstellar is really awesome movie and I highly recommend you to watch. There are some things that does not make any sense but whole movie is really great, and long (165 minutes).
So, there are some plans to visit Mars (with people), maybe you already heard about it.
First of all: Why should we visit it?
1) Prestige, country which would create this expedition would gain prestige, like with Apollo 11 mission
2) Science, we would gain lot of informations about Mars if people would stay there
Second of all: What are the problems?
1) Radiation, because astronauts would not have ozon layer like on ISS they would get huge amount of radiation from Sun. We would need probably some amazing material or faster plane.
2) Energy, Mars is far away.. which means that you need lot of energy. Yes satelites can get there with solar panels but humans would get too much radiation from that time in space.
3) Food, for half a year there needs to be lot of food for those people.
As you can see problem 1,3 could be solved by faster plane… which would probably rise problem 2.. we would not be able to store so much energy considered to reasonable amount of space.
For me, I would quess that It will take more than 70 years to get somebody to another planet.
If you can come up with another idea, feel free to share it down below in the comments.
I am back again with particles post. I was thinking if first should be about electrons or photons and then I realized that neutrinos are kind of really special and fun so I will start with them.
Neutrinos are small particles in group called leptons.
They can be created by thermonuclear reaction which is happening in stars so there are huge amounts of them flying in the Universe. Actually there is so much of them that every second millions of them will pass through every cm^2 of your body. Before it was thought that they are massless which would mean that they are able to travel at the spead of light which is not true, they have some mass but it is not much.
It is really hard to detect them but there are machines that can do that. I think that one of them is built under ice in the Antarctic continent. Even when there is so many neutrinos it can detect only extremely small fraction of them (I would not try to quess the numbers).
Neutrinos also dont interact very much so they are able to pass through whole earth without slowing down.
Supernovas are also really great source of neutrinos but they do not occur that often.
On the Earth we create it in nuclear reactors and neutrinos are also made inside the Earth because as I said in some previous post when material is beta decaying it will release neutrinos.
In the year of 2011 there was mistake when measuring the speed of neutrinos. Computer counted that traveling neutrino was able to travel distance 60 nanoseconds faster than light which is not possible. Soon they luckily knew where was the mistake.
Somehow I wanted to write something from universe… not really I am still sitting in my hometown so here it is:
Well, stars (as our Sun) DO have beginning and end as you probably heard already. It can have different length.
First of all there have to be material. I mean lot of material because as you know our sun is huge. (Sun is bigger that 90% of stars)
This material comes from other stars that are dead now and theirs material probably came up from Big bang.
There are extremely large clouds that are called Molecular clouds. In them is lot of stuff and mostly H2.
If there is enough stuff at one place (it is really dense) it can make up planet which is either stony or made from gas.
If there is enough stuff it will make even larger gas planet than Jupiter or Saturn.
At that point all of this H2 will be pulled toward the center with magnificent force. That will create heat because atoms will be brushing against each other. If there is enough heat termonuclear reaction will occur which will normalize that pull of gravity and whooo! we have new born star!
Termonuclear reaction will change Hydrogen to Helium. Helium is heavier so it will go toward center and just a little bit of Hydrogen will be left on the edges. If the star is enough heavy it will start to change Helium to Carbon or Oxygen (I think). It will continue with couple of rounds until there in the middle is Lead (Pb). Than it will never be able to go forward and the life cycle will kind of end. Few more termonuclear reactions will occur (That is called red giant because it will greatly gain volume and the it will lose it) but then gravitation will win and if that star was small (even like our Sun) White Dwarf will be the END.
White dwarf is only really dense and hot piece of stuff.
If it was heavier.
Neutron star (made of only neutrons) will be the next stage. It extremely dense thing with tremendous gravitational field.
The last thing which can happen is Black hole, you can read about them in one of my first posts, they are absolutely awesome!
PS: if white dwarf gains again enough mass because of some stuff from space it can heavily explode into Supernova
I am back with probably short post because I am lazy and tired these days. I know I wanted to start something about triangles but right now I am not that excited for it so I will make some posts about particles. I talked about some before but I have never explained what the hell are quarks for example.
So first of all… particles. Well we think about them like small stuff that is everywhere and everything is made up of it. That is right.
So I will start with molecules, easy peasy those are just two or more atoms made up together.
Atoms are (small), there is some stuff in them but first of all there are “kinds” of atoms, substances and that is Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, Carbon. They are made up all from the same things but with different amounts. Atoms are made up of core and shell. Usually, you wont do anything with core. It is very stable and not interacting. In our organism there are only changes in molecules. That means that some atoms will move somewhere else and that will change molecules properties.
Shell is made up of electrons. Electrons are NOT made up of something else, it is just primal stuff. Electron belongs to group of particles that are called elementary particles. It´s sub-group is called fermions and its sub-sub-group is leptons which are really small and light.
Core is made up of neutrons and protons. As I talked about them in four fundamental forces series those are particles (sub-atomic) that are hold together by strong force. Anyway protons are positive and neutrons neutral.
There is huge experiment going on in Japanese which is trying to proof that protons are decaying. Its problem is that one proton has half time about 10^31 years long. They did nice trick so they do not need to wait so long by monitoring ultra clear water. There are thousands tons of water and their machines are able to detect any proton decaying to photons.
Photons are also elemental particles but their sub-group is special for particles that are carriers for fundamental force: photon, gluon, bosons but not graviton because he is only hypothetical. Photons are massless which is why they can travel at the speed of light.
At last for review there are quarks which are elemental particles, even fermions like electrons but they are in special group for quarks.
I actually read something about quarks not being elemental (only hypothetical). It was said that if they are not elemental we can not be sure that there is unlimited number of smaller and smaller particles.
This was just a short preview of what I will write about next time.
I am back again! I was very sick with great temperatures but now I am alright with idea what to write about so I am bringing probably the last post for four fundamental forces today with strong interaction as the strongest of all forces.
Again on the left I have here proton. There are two parts of strong interaction, first is color force which is the stronger one and it holds particles, like hadrons (particles made of quarks) together. You probably heard of colors of quarks, there is green red and blue (RGB) and in such particle like proton or neutron those colors always have to add up to white color. If it would be antiparticle it would have anti red, anti green and anti blue.
Again on left you can see how these colors add up to white. Well what happens is that there is gluon, particle which is carrier for strong interaction and it jumps from quark to quark and when it touches it changes its color. There is great animation in this video, I recommend to watch it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNDOSMqGLlg
This color force is extremely strong so it does not let quarks to go apart. It is even that strong that when you break it new quark will be created from that huge amount of energy! Scientist think that right after big bang when particles were really fast and close to each other there was state of matter called quark-gluon plasma which was kind of soup of quarks and gluons. It is hypothetic and it was not yet created in LHC or somewhere else.
There is that second part of strong interaction called: nuclear force. I am not really sure about it, but anyway you maybe wondered why does nucleas exists when protons(+) should repell each other and that is made by particles called pions which are carrying quarks around and they are creating reaction which is attractive.
On the end, pions are particles made up of two quarks but one of them has to be antiquark so they looks like this:
There are three types of pions and those are Pi+, Pi-, Pi 0. Their life time is incredibly short and they are decaying to neutrinos or gamma rays.
That will be all,
PS: Thanks for your likes and comments