Apollo missions: Prologue

let´s talk about most famous space missions: Apollo missions!
Those are missions under the program called Apollo which was named after Greek god Apollo (god driving across sky).
This program was started in 1961 but it took six years before first missions (with people) was launched.
Program started in USA while president Eisehower was holding the seat. NASA did not get much money so it took president Kennedy and Gagarin on orbit before they could start some research. It was in time of cold war so there was even greater “fight” between USA and SSSR. When soviet astronaut first appeared on orbit american prestige went down.
BUT lot of people agreed that they should give some money to NASA and Kennedy promised that before next decade there will be human who was on surface of Moon.

And well, in 1969 Apollo 11 really landed on Moon with crew of Buzz, Armstrong and Collins.
Kennedy thought that after landing USA would become the uniting state but actually the effect of landing was not that strong even that it surely was extremely epic.
Anyway next posts I will talk about some missions and than some more, for prologue it is all.



Civilizations: Fermi paradox

Fermi paradox is paradox made mainly by Enrico Fermi and what it asks is basicly: “Why are there no signs of other civilizations?”
That´s a question!
It is based on few things:
Our home star The Sun is quiet normal star which is not rare in our galaxy so lot of them should be here.
Next thing is that you must assume that the Earth is normal planet and lot of those stars will have similar rocks around itself in the right distance.
And civilization would develop on this planet and it would send some signals or travel through Galaxy.

There are really tons of stars like Sun and probably even similar planets but still we are not apparently hearing anything from space… lets see some solutions to this problem.

1) Civilizations are not common because either there is life on other planets but it is not developed or it is much rarer to survive through what is so called: Great Filter it is some event which would erase us, like meteorite or gamma burst.
2) There have to be much more specific things on planet. Without great source of energy it would probably not be able to send signals or even colonize other planets. Moon is very important for Earth since it stabilize its axis (which is important for normal seasons).
3) It is normal that life destroys itself when it has got enough good technology, nuclear war, lot of trash. OR it is normal that life destroys other lifes which means there would be some first great civilization which would keep Universe clean.
4) Another thing is that we are not sending signals really long time or listening really long time plus we are listening only to part of sky and only to some kind of signals. Maybe post-modern civilizations dont need to use our kind of communication but for example neutrino rays or something very different. AND what kind of radio signals we are using right now is not really long lasting for civilizations that would be thousands light years away.
5) Another thing is that maybe all civilizations are listening but none are sending which would cause in SETI-paradox. Or other civilizations do not want to interact because it is too dangerous.

So those are some ideas that I found, feel free to share yours!

Civilizations: Dyson´s sphere

Again I will write about civilizations but this time only about Dyson´s spheres which I mentioned before as a thing which would be used by civilization of type II and type III.

View larger. | Artist's concept of a Dyson sphere via SentientDevelopments.comBecause there is high probability of all civilizations using energy, we assume that all “worlds” will need more and more energy as their population grows.
At one point there wont be enough energy on its home planet. They/we will need some source of energy which would be kind of permanent. Here comes this Dyson´s sphere because it is a sphere which surrounds home star and collects its energy.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Dyson_Ring.PNG

First there are smaller types of Dyson´s sphere like a Dyson´s ring. It is ring of objects sharing the same orbit and collecting energy of star. They would transfer the energy by wireless power transfer.
Expansion to ring is swarm which is lot of rings around star. BUT those ring´s orbit would intercept each other so it would be really difficult to avoid some crush.
To solve this you would have to have statellites instead of satellites. Those would be objects which would be stationary and they would not orbit the star. Those things would fight with gravity by large sail which would be pushed away from the star by solar wind. BUT this sail would have to be extremely light.. when I say extremely I mean very extremely because paper has 80g for squared meter and this sail would have to be about 0.7g for m^2. This would require ultra light nanotubes.
Last type is sphere which would collect almost all energy made by star. It would be extremely difficult to stabilize it and collect all the material.


Civilizations: Kardashev scale

I learned some stuff about fermi paradox and alien worlds in past few days so I will try to do my best in describing this stuff. I found it really interesting.

So there is scale which is called Kardashev scale. It is scale that describes civilizations by three levels: Type I, Type II and Type III.

Type I
It is type that we are heading towards. Civilization of type I should be able to use all the available resources on its home planet which means it could fuse hydrogen into helium by nuclear fusion or it could use antimatter-matter anihilation to create enormous amounts of energy and would use sunlight, windpower or waterflow in large scales.

Type II
Type two civilisation would need even more energy which would cause in using all or almost all energy created by closest star (Sun). This “thing” is called Dyson´s sphere because it surrounds star and collects its energy. There are different types of Dyson´s sphere like: ring or swarm which are not that effective.

Type III
It is only extension to Type II because that civilisation would be able to use the energy of whole galaxy or multiple galaxies by Dyson´s spheres. Also there are some things like white holes or quasars which would also create a lot of energy so this type of civilisation could use them.

There is also extension for IV and V type.
4th would use whole universe while 5th would be able to use energy from multiple universes.


4) Particles: Hyperons

I will talk about hyperons. Hyperons are not fundamental particles because they are made up by quarks, like neutrons or protons.
(to see what are quarks check this post: https://dragallur.wordpress.com/2015/05/03/3-particles-quarks/)
They are in the group of hadrons. It is group of particles that are made up by quarks so in this group are also Pions which are in the smaller group of mesons.
Btw. mesons are particles that are made up by pair of quark-antiquark.
While hyperons are in the group of baryons = particles with three quarks.

So the strange thing about them is that they have to have one strange quark so they can be hyperons. The most “common” one is similar to proton or neutron because he is made up of up, down and strange quark and he is called Lambda. There are twelve of them with different combinations of those three quarks, one of them, Omega has only strange quarks.

Ok, thats about it. They have also attribute of really fast decaying because strange quark is not very stable so they can not be found except in Hyperon stars. Those are heavier neutron stars in which hyperons wont decay because they have no space and gravity will hold them.