I am back again with particles post. I was thinking if first should be about electrons or photons and then I realized that neutrinos are kind of really special and fun so I will start with them.
Neutrinos are small particles in group called leptons.
They can be created by thermonuclear reaction which is happening in stars so there are huge amounts of them flying in the Universe. Actually there is so much of them that every second millions of them will pass through every cm^2 of your body. Before it was thought that they are massless which would mean that they are able to travel at the spead of light which is not true, they have some mass but it is not much.
It is really hard to detect them but there are machines that can do that. I think that one of them is built under ice in the Antarctic continent. Even when there is so many neutrinos it can detect only extremely small fraction of them (I would not try to quess the numbers).
Neutrinos also dont interact very much so they are able to pass through whole earth without slowing down.
Supernovas are also really great source of neutrinos but they do not occur that often.
On the Earth we create it in nuclear reactors and neutrinos are also made inside the Earth because as I said in some previous post when material is beta decaying it will release neutrinos.
In the year of 2011 there was mistake when measuring the speed of neutrinos. Computer counted that traveling neutrino was able to travel distance 60 nanoseconds faster than light which is not possible. Soon they luckily knew where was the mistake.
I am back with probably short post because I am lazy and tired these days. I know I wanted to start something about triangles but right now I am not that excited for it so I will make some posts about particles. I talked about some before but I have never explained what the hell are quarks for example.
So first of all… particles. Well we think about them like small stuff that is everywhere and everything is made up of it. That is right.
So I will start with molecules, easy peasy those are just two or more atoms made up together.
Atoms are (small), there is some stuff in them but first of all there are “kinds” of atoms, substances and that is Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, Carbon. They are made up all from the same things but with different amounts. Atoms are made up of core and shell. Usually, you wont do anything with core. It is very stable and not interacting. In our organism there are only changes in molecules. That means that some atoms will move somewhere else and that will change molecules properties.
Shell is made up of electrons. Electrons are NOT made up of something else, it is just primal stuff. Electron belongs to group of particles that are called elementary particles. It´s sub-group is called fermions and its sub-sub-group is leptons which are really small and light.
Core is made up of neutrons and protons. As I talked about them in four fundamental forces series those are particles (sub-atomic) that are hold together by strong force. Anyway protons are positive and neutrons neutral.
There is huge experiment going on in Japanese which is trying to proof that protons are decaying. Its problem is that one proton has half time about 10^31 years long. They did nice trick so they do not need to wait so long by monitoring ultra clear water. There are thousands tons of water and their machines are able to detect any proton decaying to photons.
Photons are also elemental particles but their sub-group is special for particles that are carriers for fundamental force: photon, gluon, bosons but not graviton because he is only hypothetical. Photons are massless which is why they can travel at the speed of light.
At last for review there are quarks which are elemental particles, even fermions like electrons but they are in special group for quarks.
I actually read something about quarks not being elemental (only hypothetical). It was said that if they are not elemental we can not be sure that there is unlimited number of smaller and smaller particles.
This was just a short preview of what I will write about next time.
today I will return to electromagnetism as second fundamental force.
It is made up two forces which we are thinking like extremely different ones.
First I will talk about electro static force.
Well, It is quite easy. When you have two objects and one wants to give electron while the other would like to take some electrons and you will make them touch each other electrons will be jumping there creating one object negatively charged and second one positively charged. (F.g. when you pull your christmas sweather on you, in dark you can probably see little lightings and feel those small shocks.) It is the same wiith battery, one side wants to have electrons so when it is charged it does not have them while second one has lot of electrons but it doesn´t need them so through some wire this difference will be slowly going to equalize by flow of electrons.
Magnetism also works with electrons and that is why these forces could be connected to electromagnetism. Magnet is made up by some special material in which atoms are turning by their pluses and minuses. So in every magnet there are millions of magnets. It does not matter if you make it smaller there will always appear new south and north pole which is made by this turning of atoms.
+ -+ –
Here on right would be south pole (+) and on left would be north pole. It it would be really light (not heavy) and it could easily turn it would be kind of compass.
At last if teacher told you that others things that are not created by Fe,Co,Ni cannot interact with this force they are wrong because you can actually find videos of levitating strawberries because of extremely strong electromagnetic field.
There is also very special attribute of electromagnetism, if you have wire without elctricity and magnet somehow rotating around you can create electricity.
That is way to create elctricity for your house. For example water flowing rotating turbine and magnets around wire is way to get energy. Or by wind rotating turbine or hot H2O flowing in reactor.
Gravity or gravitation is one of four fundamental forces in the universe. It is also the weakest one as I said in the last post. Unlike other forces it works on much bigger distances. And it only pushes things together.
Imagine having a planet like Earth. It has poles. South pole and north pole. We can see that Earth gravity is pretty strong, it holds us here. So if electromagnetic force is 10^40(something like that) stronger, shouldn´t be electromagnetic field of earth insanely strong? No because electromagnetism works with +(plus) and -(minus) and they will cancel out (almost). Strong and weak interaction are working only on short distances so when you are forming galaxy or star you will work only with gravity.
There are two ways of imagining gravity. (Actually there are more but those are basic) 1) Newton´s way
It says something like this: Every particle in universe attracts all other particles in universe by force which is higher when mass of particles is bigger and is lower when particles are far away each other. Its equation is F=G*(m1*m2)/r
F is force of gravity
G is gravity constant (you can find it on wikipedia)
m1,m2 are masses of your objects
r is distance of objects 2)Einstein´s way
Spacetime is bended by all particles with mass. And it works with all particles even those which are massless, like photons.
Newton´s way does not actually explain some things like orbital of Mars (so it is kind of broken).
On the left is picture of spacetime. You can also imagine your bed which is probably very soft and when you push your matress it goes down. At that point your fist is actually kind of planet, star or black hole and it atracts other stuff around. If you take a ball lay it next to your hand it will go down to center of that hole you created.
I have found awesome video on gravity so here is link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTY1Kje0yLg
You will see that all forces have some force carrier. Gravitational carrier is massless particle called graviton. It is theoretical, which means it was not detected. Scientists even think that it cannot be detected, but we can see what it does: Gravity!
Hi again, for fourth time!
I am subscribing some science channels on youtube. SciShow, VSauce, MinutePhysics or Veritasium. They are all awesome and I would like to recommend them to you. Plus I would like to thank to them because I learned a lot of stuff from them.
Anyway, few weeks ago I watched serie from SciShow. There were videos about fundamental forces. Because I would like to write about what i learned on this blog it inspired me to do something similar and try to explain what are those fundamental forces.
This post will only be about what are they together and then I want to talk about them one by one.
So there are four fundamental forces. You could also say basic forces. They have some similarities and all of them have force carriers.
First one is gravitation. It is probably the most strangest one. Gravitation is strange because it only pulls things together. Gravitation is atribute of every particle with mass. It is also crazy weak. Electromagnetic pull between two particles with different charge is 10^42 stronger than gravitation between two particles!
Next one is electromagnetism. It occurs between two objects with some charge. On the beginning of 19th century electromagnetism was created by putting together electric force and magnetic force.
Another is weak interaction. It is (for me) far more complicated i think. It affects very small stuff like quarks. It is also responsible for beta decay. Its carrier is photon.
Last one, also very complicated is strong interaction. Strong interaction is very strong. It is that strong that it can create new massive particles! Again it works on small scale and its force carrier is gluon.
Well that was short overview for fundamental forces. I will talk about them later, one by one.
Thank you for your likes and comments, as I said before, I really appreciate them!
PS. something about radioactive decay is coming!